Safe, efficient and ergonomic in any environment.
Explosive gas mixtures, vapours, mists, or dust clouds are produced as a side effect of production in many branches of industry. These include the pharmaceutical and chemical industry, the printing and paper sectors, but also areas such as cereal or sugar processing. In these companies, intralogistics trucks must guarantee the maximum level of explosion protection in order to avoid accidents.
Numerous electric or diesel-operated forklifts, pallet trucks, and other warehouse handling trucks from Linde Material Handling are therefore available in explosion-proof ‘Ex’ versions, meaning that the entire material flow in a company can be conducted under explosion-proof conditions. Components which could trigger sparking, such as drive components, wheels, or even lifting forks, are encapsulated, sealed, or made of highly safe materials.
In addition, the surface temperature of individual truck components is regulated in order to prevent explosions. Due to the additional equipment, the logistics trucks retain the cost-effectiveness, handling performance, and ergonomic design typical of Linde.
Potentially explosive gas mixtures, vapours, mists, or dust clouds are generated as a by-product of processes in many industrial sectors. These include the pharmaceutical and chemical industry, the printing and paper sectors, as well as other areas such as cereal or sugar processing. In these companies, intralogistics trucks must guarantee the maximum level of explosion protection in order to avoid accidents.
Linde Material Handling therefore offers numerous counterbalanced trucks, reach trucks, pallet stackers and pallet trucks in explosion-proof 'Ex' versions, meaning that the entire material flow in a company can be carried out under explosion-proof conditions. Components which could trigger sparking, such as drive components, wheels or even lifting forks, are protected through surface treatment.
In addition, the surface temperature of individual truck components is regulated in order to prevent overheating. Despite this additional equipment, the trucks retain the cost-effectiveness, handling performance, and ergonomic design that Linde is known for.
Standard-compliant in hazard zones
The legal requirements for explosion protection are constantly being developed and standardised. It is important to implement these promptly and correctly. All explosion-proof versions of Linde trucks and warehousing equipment conform to the most up-to-date legislation, as does the documentation associated with them. They comply with the EU regulations on the use of equipment in potentially explosive atmospheres (EN 1755) and the ATEX Directives 2014/34/EU.
The use of harmonised standards in the development process ensures CE conformity. All relevant components, devices and modules, as well as the whole truck must undergo a type test or be certified by an accredited, reputable testing centre. Linde provides trucks for use in potentially explosive atmospheres, caused by gas, vapour or dust, which occur occasionally (Zone 1/Zone 21) or temporarily (Zone 2/Zone 22) during normal operation. Trucks in categories 2G/D and 3G/D are adapted precisely to the respective conditions of use, which are derived from the customer’s explosion protection document.
Explosion protection measures
Linde trucks are specially designed to meet the requirements for working in potentially explosive areas. They combine the well-known advantages of series-produced trucks with comprehensive explosion protection measures pursuant to the ATEX product guidelines.
A range of protection measures is used to protect electrical equipment such as motors, controls, sensors, switches or displays. Linde uses flameproof enclosure, increased safety, intrinsic safety, encapsulation, sealed devices, non-sparking equipment and restricted breathing housings.
Constructive measures protect the mechanical equipment. The formation of mechanical sparks is avoided on the forks and brakes. Plastic components such as floor mats, tyres, tanks and seat covers are protected against hazardous electrostatic charges.
Electronic temperature monitoring ensures that no excessively high temperatures are reached, even under extreme operating conditions.
Designed according to explosion group and temperature class
During the design of explosion-proof forklift trucks, Linde engineers use technologies designed for defined explosion groups and temperature classes. Potentially explosive substances are categorised into certain explosion groups depending on how sensitive they are. Trucks for use around substances in higher explosion groups, such as hydrogen, require more extensive protective measures. The substances are also classified according to the temperature at which they become explosive as a gas or vapour. The components of the forklift truck are designed accordingly.
Innovative technology in explosion-proof design
Thanks to the close collaboration between the Linde Series Development and Explosion Protection departments, innovative assistance systems, safety features and special equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres are made available in the shortest possible time. There is a wide range of optional special equipment, including the Linde connect fleet management system, Linde BlueSpot, and the new Linde VertiLight working lights. Fleets of standard and explosion-proof trucks can thus be equipped to the same comfort and safety standard offered by all Linde trucks.
You can also rely on our strong service network when using the trucks in a hazardous, potentially explosive atmosphere. Our service technicians are trained in accordance with international explosion protection regulations. They ensure that your explosion-proof truck remains ready for use at all times and that regular statutory inspections are carried out without any problems. As with the provision of spare series parts, Linde service partners worldwide also provide spare parts for explosion-proof trucks from a central supply which is available 24/7. These spare parts remain available long after series production has ended.
Standard-compliant in hazard zones
The legal requirements for explosion protection are increasing at EU and national level. This means the technical requirements for logistics trucks are also increasing. Linde Material Handling uses the specified classification into hazard zones for explosion protection equipment for its forklifts and pallet trucks: There are Linde models for use in areas in which explosive gas mixtures or vapours only occur occasionally.
These forklifts and pallet trucks for zone 1 require the 2G explosion protection category. On the other hand, usage zones in which explosive gas concentrations occur rarely and only for a short time (zone 2) require the 3G explosion protection category. In the case of explosive dust clouds, the EU ATEX regulations differentiate between zones 21, 22 or 23, depending on whether the hazardous dust concentrations occur constantly, occasionally, or only for a short time. For almost all of the defined hazardous zones, Linde is able to equip a comprehensive portfolio of trucks with electric or diesel drive explosion proofing.
Designed according to explosion group and temperature classes
During the design of explosion-proof warehouse handling trucks, Linde engineers use technologies designed for defined explosion groups and temperature classes. Depending on how sensitive an explosive substance is, it is classified into a particular explosion group. Substances in higher explosion groups, such as hydrogen or acetylene gas, require more extensive protective measures on the trucks. The substances are also classified according to the temperature from which they become explosive as a gas or vapour. Accordingly, various components of the forklifts and pallet trucks are cooled.
Explosion protection measures on electro trucks for protection categories 2G and 3G
In order to prevent sparking from an electric Linde logistics truck, all electrical components, such as drive, lift, pump, and steering motors and electronic control units such as relays, operating hour counters, or battery capacity display, are encapsulated in pressure-resistant housings.
The cable inputs to the components are each designed with specially approved screw connections, and certified batteries, couplings, and plugs are installed.
In forklifts and pallet trucks, the prongs of the lifting fork are coated with a brass alloy or stainless steel, because both coatings suppress sparks, for example on collision with a metal shelf.
The trucks are temperature-monitored. When the permitted limit temperature is reached, they reduce the working speed or switch off completely. Where possible, cooling elements made of aluminium-magnesium are applied to axles or motors in order to dissipate the temperature better and to keep the trucks available for longer.
Sparks can be caused simply by static discharge of the trucks. Seats, plastic components in the operator's cab, and tires are therefore designed to be conductive. The wheel rims are left partially uncoated in order to dissipate charges into the ground. Electrical control elements in the cab are designed with low operating currents, meaning that only Linde original parts may be used.
Explosion protection measures on diesel trucks for protection categories 2G and 3G
The truck drives themselves burn flammable fuel, which creates high temperatures in engine parts and exhausts, for example. In trucks of these model series, the entire engine therefore has explosion-proof encapsulation. The central electrics for the engine and control elements, starter battery, starter, and alternator are also isolated in a pressure-resistant manner.
The forklift drives have an automatic shut-off device. It stops the engine if the coolant or the exhaust exceed the permitted temperature limit, the speed gets too high or the lubricating oil pressure in the motor drops out.
Special protective measures are used where the engine unit has a mechanical connection to the outside. For example, there are crankshaft gap seals on both sides of the unit, with screwed dipstick and their own crankcase ventilation.
The diesel engines in explosion-proof Linde trucks have exhaust cooling, which dissipates the exhaust heat that builds up via a heat exchanger to the coolant. A tested spark catcher is also installed in the exhaust system, and a tested spark trap is integrated into the air intake line to the engine.
Explosion-proof special equipment
The Ex-forklift models are also available with optional special equipment, just like the conventional Linde trucks. Electrically operated features such as wiper motors, working lights, the Linde BlueSpotTM, or flashing warning lights are also isolated to be explosion-proof.